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Inclusion Criteria for NTM Infect Subjects

  1. NTM Clinical Criteria and Exposure
    1. Any of the following Clinical Criteria:
      • Prosthetic valve endocarditis
      • Paravalvular abscess
      • Prosthetic vascular graft infection
      • Any intravascular device infection, including LVAD-associated infections
      • Sternotomy wound infection
      • Mediastinitis
      • Empyema
      • Manifestations of disseminated infection including embolic and immunologic manifestations (any of the following):
      •      Splenomegaly
             Bone marrow involvement with cytopenia
             Lung involvement

    2. Exposure criteria:
      • A patient having undergone surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass in the 10 years before the onset of infection symptoms

  2. NTM Confirmed or Probable case
    1. Confirmed case:
      • A patient meeting the clinical and exposure criteria above AND M. chimaera or other non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by culture OR identified by PCR or DNA sequencing in an invasive sample (e.g. blood, pus, tissue biopsy or implanted prosthetic material).

    2. Probable case:
      • A patient meeting the clinical and exposure criteria above AND histopathological detection of non-caseating granuloma and foamy/swollen macrophages with acid fast bacilli in cardiac or vascular tissue in the proximity of the prosthetic material or in specimen from the sternotomy wound.

*For patients with AIDS and who meet the case definition by the clinical and exposure criteria AND have an organism identified as "MAC" we will review the medical records to ensure that their infection is related to the operation and is not disseminated MAC secondary to AIDS.